One of the Father's of the Black Nationalist Movement, The Honorable Marcus Mosiah Garvey was born on august 17th 1887 in St. ann's bay, Jamaica. After being involved in Black Nationalist activities at home in Jamaica, Garvey traveled and studied in Central America & London before ultimately ending up in America in 1916 at 29 Years Old. A year earlier he had founded The Universal Negro Improvement association, loosely modeled after the teachings of Booker T. Washington. The goal was to uplift Black People around the world mentally, Physically, Spiritually, Politically, Economically, socially & Beyond. By 1920, The UNIA would boast of having more than 1000 local offices across the globe & would be considered to be by far the largest organized movement of Black People. The centerpiece of the movement was The Black Star Line, a growing fleet of ships designed to foster trade/economic development for the Global Nation of Blacks All Over The World, and to facilitate Repatriation Back To Africa. In a pattern to be seen over & over again in american History, this challenge to the paradigm & philosophy of white supremacy put targets on the back of Garvey & the leadership of the UNIA. Alleged improprieties & errors of inexperience were manipulated to create a criminal indictment, and in 1922 Marcus Garvey was charged with Mail Fraud. Garvey was immediately deported back to Jamaica upon his release from prison, and the movement never recovered from this setback. The Honorable Marcus Mosiah Garvey would die in London, England on June 10th 1940. Garvey's work was one of two direct precursors to The nation of Islam, and a model for so many others-especially The Black Panther Party. Not included among the quotes you will see below, but probably his most famous, "Black Is Beautiful!" #Salute
Earlier this week marks the 51 Year Anniversary of the founding of The Organization Of Afro-American Unity by our Beloved & Departed Brother Malcolm X (aka El Hajj Malik El Shabazz). From my perspective it is the very founding of this organization, or at least the goals & intentions of this organization, that signaled the surety that Brother Malcolm would have to be assassinated by The U.S. Government. Modeled after The Organization Of African Unity, The OAAU was set up to form a bond between many of the newly-independent African nations with The Diaspora of Black People in America & across the globe against our common oppressors. The OAAU was formed on June 28th 1964, and built its charter with help from great minds such as John Henrik Clarke, Albert Cleage & More. Within days of its formation it would be deemed as a Threat To National Security by FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover (per a July 2nd 1964 memo). Built to be a coalition of more than 50 nations, one can only marvel at what could have come about from this union. Sadly however Our Brother would be assassinated before a proper foundation, that would make a way for The OAAU to be able to live on beyond the life of its founder, could be formed. Today we honor the memory of Our Brother, and everything that he sought to achieve for US, in hope that we may continue to learn & strive to achieve the goal of Justice, Simple Human Dignities, and Control of Our Social & Political Interests.
Born in the Then-French colony of Martinique in 1925, Frantz Fanon rose to become one of the most influential voices of Black Liberation & Pride, whose ideas are credited as a key influence on Black Power Movement Leaders such as Huey P. Newton, Eldridge Cleaver, Stokely Carmichael & George Jackson among others. A veteran of World War II, Psychiatrist & Author, Fanon took the America by storm when his book "The Wretched Of The Earth" made its way into the hands of young militants all across the country. Called "the handbook for black revolution," Fanon stressed the necessity of using violence against European & American colonial Oppression. Frantz Fanon's first book "Black Skin, White Masks" spoke to the mental, emotional & psychological domination of the European over the minds of the oppressed classes of Africans across the globe & the necessity to break those chains of manufactured inferiority. The book was actually published in 1952, but was largely ignored until being released in America in 1967. All of his writing advocated the uniting of the oppressed peasantry or Proletariat to carry out an Armed socialist revolution against colonial Exploitation. Fanon wrote at least three other books (including "Toward The African Revolution" & "A Dying Colonialism"). He also served on the Algerian Provisional Government, and as ambassador to Ghana before dying in 1961. Sadly he did not live long enough to see the very wave of Revolutionary Activity in Africa & America that preached the necessity for; but anyone familiar with his work would undoubtedly have to give him his due credit as one of the key forces that helped awaken the Black Masses of The World to Fight for Their Independence. #Salute
"Why Are They Claiming Things That Existed In The World Before They Existed?"
For any regular reader of The Wandering Eyes Blog, it's no secret that Dr. John Henrik Clarke has a special place in our hearts & minds. One of the greatest & most dedicated scholars ever to commit to unearthing the long buried history of the Black/African Diaspora, he holds no punches, and will criticize even those held traditionally in high regard. In this latest installment, Dr. Clarke builds on how The African developed the basis for all of the religions of the world & the basic concept of God, and how Christianity was manipulated and bastardized at the Council of Nicaea. To the flipside, he also speaks to the impact of a bastardized version of Islam ravaging through African Nations & Cultures, the detrimental effects of Black People's reluctance to study the true history & origins of Islam, and how both religions have programmed the Black/African mind to assume inferiority to Whites & Arabs. From a political perspective, Dr. Clarke rounds out the discussion with a thorough analysis of The African Origins of All Lands & Civilizations. Again the idea of embracing someone else's concepts as the keys to Our Elevation out of an Oppressive State of Being, rather than looking to the blueprint set out by our own Ancestors & Leaders.
"We Must Go And Stand, And Show Our Wares, And Show That It All Began With Us."
On this day in history (April 7, 1712) began a slave uprising that would lead to the deaths of at least nine whites, and leave at least six others wounded. Intended to inspire others to follow suit, only the intervention of the State Militia would stop the revolt from spreading beyond the area in which it started. As the story goes, a group of approximately 23 slaves met in an orchard on Maiden Lane in Manhattan, and began setting fire to houses & buildings in and around Manhattan. When the European Colonists & Slave Owners came out to fight or escape the fires, they would be attacked by slaves carrying Guns, Hatchets, and knives. in the end 27 rebels were captured. six allegedly committed suicide, rather than face a return to bondage or worse. the remaining 21 were tortured and ultimately executed. Some were said to have been burned alive. fearing similar rebellions, already established Slaves Law were made even more strict. No more than three slaves could be in the same place, at the same time; and slaves would be severely beaten without reason, as long as they were not killed (profit reigns supreme over all). Prior to the rebellion, slaves already endured savagely inhumane conditions of beatings & starvation; so there really was never anything to lose. the narrative about slavery & racism in general always focuses on The South; but history records some of the most horrible acts of aggression coming from the supposedly more safe North. This would continue right on into the sixties when Dr. Martin Luther King would endure the worst of all of his violent encounters right in Chicago. THE WANDERING EYES BLOG SALUTES ALL FREEDOM FIGHTERS, past & present!!!
Fifty-Eight Years ago today, The African Republic of Ghana (formerly known as The Gold Coast) gained its independence from Britain. One of the first to break free from what had been hundreds of Years Exploitation & Oppression at the hands of European Nations, this set off a wave of additional revolutions all across The Continent of Africa. Between 1957 & 1960, eighteen African Nations gained their Independence from British, French & Belgian Oppressors. In the case of Ghana, many of its citizens had fought along-side The British in World War II & returned home to find the same Poverty, Unemployment & Violence they thought they had fought to end. At the forefront of Ghana's struggle for independence was Kwame nkrumah. Previously imprisoned for leading protests against the British Colonial Government, Nkrumah would be elected as The Gold Coast's First Prime Minister & eventually President. Renaming his new nation Ghana, in honor of The Ancient African Empire, Nkrumah went about the work of improving the nation's Roadways, Universities & Infrastructure. However his Marxist-Leaning ideals did not sit well with the Western World, and soon the campaign to bring him down would kick into high gear. Blamed for the Ghana's new & old economic woes, public opinion of Kwame Nkrumah began to change. Nkrumah made several errors during his time, which led the military to believe that he had too much power. At least two failed assassination attempts would only make Nkrumah close ranks to more of a Dictator-Like Regime. In 1966, a CIA-backed Coup took place while Nkrumah was away in China. Nkrumah would never be allowed to return home to Ghana, and would end his days in Exile. Numerous regime changes would follow-most of them far more repressive than Nkrumah could have ever been accused of being. The early 1970's regimes of Ignatius Acheampong and Frederick Akuffo were said to be especially brutal. Some stability would return in 1979, under the rule of Jerry Rawlings; but by that time the spirit pf The African Revolution was long dead.
“Divided We Are Weak. United, Africa Could Become One Of The Greatest Forces For Good In The World.”
With a vision for a "United States Of Africa," Kwame Nkrumah was one of the pioneering forces behind the formation of The Organization Of African Unity established in may 1963. The OAU, which consisted of 32 African Nations, sought to ensure a return to Political & Economic Prosperity for the Entire Continent. Kwame Nkrumah warned of this Unified Africa as the only deterrent to a second wave of returning to continue to exploit The Continent of Africa for all of its Natural Resources again. Today we honor You President Kwame Nkrumah & All others that stood to fight for the greater good.